Posts tagged history
Posts tagged history
From the illegal to the superstitious to the just plain weird, here are some items people found stashed in walls.
Here’s an awesome little piece of history:
Archaeologists in the Burnt City have discovered what appears to be an ancient prosthetic eye. What makes this discovery exceptionally awesome is the striking description of how the owner and her false eye would have appeared while she was still alive and blinking:
[The eye] has a hemispherical form and a diameter of just over 2.5 cm (1 inch). It consists of very light material, probably bitumen paste. The surface of the artificial eye is covered with a thin layer of gold, engraved with a central circle (representing the iris) and gold lines patterned like sun rays. The female remains found with the artificial eye was 1.82 m tall (6 feet), much taller than ordinary women of her time. On both sides of the eye are drilled tiny holes, through which a golden thread could hold the eyeball in place. Since microscopic research has shown that the eye socket showed clear imprints of the golden thread, the eyeball must have been worn during her lifetime. The woman’s skeleton has been dated to between 2900 and 2800 BCE.
So she was an extraordinarily tall woman walking around wearing an engraved golden eye patterned with rays like a tiny sun. What an awesome sight that must have been.
SOMEONE DRAW HER PLEASE
CAN WE TALK ABOUT HOW AN ANCIENT CRAFTSMAN WAS PRESENTED WITH PEOPLE LOOKING FOR HELP TO NORMALIZE THEIR DISABILITY. AND THEN SAID ‘NAH FUCK THIS WE’RE GOING TO MAKE YOU LOOK BADASS.’
Today we learned that in the 1930s some people entertained large crowds by skating in giant frying pans with slabs of bacon on their feet. It may not be the most efficient way to fry bacon for a big group of people, but it sure is novel.
We aren’t aware of any contemporary bacon skaters, so this seems to have been a fleeting craze, which is a shame. Professional Bacon Skater would look awesome on a résumé.
"Black Wall Street, the name fittingly given to one of the most affluent all-Black communities in America, was bombed from the air and burned to the ground by mobs of envious Whites. In a period spanning fewer than 12 hours, a once thriving Black business district in northern Tulsa lay smoldering – a model community destroyed and a major African-American economic movement resoundingly defused.
The night’s carnage left some 3,000 African Americans dead and over 600 successful businesses lost. Among these were 21 churches, 21 restaurants, 30 grocery stores and two movie theaters, plus a hospital, a bank, a post office, libraries, schools, law offices, a half dozen private airplanes and even a bus system. As could have been expected, the impetus behind it all was the infamous Ku Klux Klan, working in consort with ranking city officials and many other sympathizers.
The best description of Black Wall Street, or Little Africa as it was also known, would be to compare it to a mini Beverly Hills. It was the golden door of the Black community during the early 1900s, and it proved that African Americans could create a successful infrastructure. That’s what Black Wall Street was all about.
The dollar circulated 36 to 100 times, sometimes taking a year for currency to leave the community. Now a dollar leaves the Black community in 15 minutes. As for resources, there were Ph.D.s residing in Little Africa, Black attorneys and doctors. One doctor was Dr. Berry, who owned the bus system. His average income was $500 a day, hefty pocket change in 1910…”
Marie Antoinette’s Last Letter Stained By Her Tears
“16th October, 4.30 A.M.
It is to you, my sister, that I write for the last time. I have just been condemned, not to a shameful death, for such is only for criminals, but to go and rejoin your brother. Innocent like him, I hope to show the same firmness in my last moments. I am calm, as one is when one’s conscience reproaches one with nothing. I feel profound sorrow in leaving my poor children: you know that I only lived for them and for you, my good and tender sister.… ‘I had friends. The idea of being forever separated from them and from all their troubles is one of the greatest sorrows that I suffer in dying. Let them at least know that to my latest moment I thought of them’. I told myself I wouldn’t cry. I cried.
Influence Through the Ages: The Fayum Mummy Portraits
The art of encaustic painting, a technique essential to a vast amount of art in Europe during the dark ages, High Medieval periods, the Renaissance, and especially influential to Russian Iconography, traces its roots through Byzantine art and back into classical antiquity…arriving at the Fayum Mummy Portraits dating from the first century B.C.E.
Most of these near 1,000 portraits are attached to the preserved body of the person depicted. The methods used to create these works can be traced to artistic styles kept alive from Hellenistic Greece to Coptic Egyptian tradition, traveling up into Europe via Italy and Greece to be regenerated at the dawn of the Italian Renaissance with the resurrection of Classical values and virtues.
The connections of these encaustic portraits on wooden panels to Russian Medieval Religious Icons are both stylistic and historical. Many Christian treasures were carried from their North African and Middle Eastern origins and hidden in Northern Europe and Russia for safekeeping; many of the Black Madonnas of Europe owe their existence to these flights from war-torn areas.
These mummy portraits have immense art-historical importance because very few mobile pieces of art like these ancient panel paintings survive. Some aspects of the mummy portraits, especially their frontal perspective and their concentration on key facial features, strongly resemble later icon painting.
The earliest portraits of the Virgin Mary, attributed to Saint Luke and said to have been “painted from life”, also indicate influence in composition, style, and materials.
Some art historians name the Fayum portraits “The Earliest Modernist Paintings”. Many Medieval and Renaissance schools of painting were influenced by these ancient techniques. Romanesque to Medieval religious Italian art shows this influence in the colors and methods used for religious iconography:
And the realism and brushstrokes are echoed in Early Flemish and Netherlandish religious paintings as well.
Although Northern European art after the fall of the Roman empire shifted sharply to stylized form and symbolic rather than representational images, the soft realism and warm individuality of the Fayum portraits was kept alive in pockets of influence to be reborn in the High Medieval Period and Renaissance in Northern Europe.
Bernardo, Unknown Illuminators
The Kings of León and Castile 850s-1157
Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris (c. 1130s), Beatos de Fendinando I y Sancha (1047), Tumbo a la de Catedral de Santiago de Compostela (c. 1129)
1. Urraca of León and Castile. Urraca was Queen regnant of León, Castile, and Galicia, and claimed the imperial title as Imperiatrix Totius Hispaniae (Empress of All Spain[s]) from 1109 until her death in childbirth, as well as Empress of All Galicia.
2. Alfonso VI of León and Castile. Nicknamed “the Brave” after his conquest of Toledo, he was known for his many martial accomplishments.
3. Ramiro II of León. Ramiro II, son of Ordoño II, was a King of León from 931 until his death. Initially titular king only of a lesser part of the kingdom, he gained the crown of León after supplanting his brother Alfonso IV and cousin Alfonso Fróilaz in 931.
4. Sancho I of Leon. called “the Fat”, he was the son of Ramiro II of León and queen Urraca Sánchez of Pamplona. He succeeded his half-brother Ordoño III in 956 and reigned until his death, except for a two-year interruption from 958 to 960, when Ordoño the Wicked usurped the throne. He was a grandson of Sancho I of Pamplona and Toda Aznárez.
5. Ferdinand I of León and Castile, with wife Sancha (far left) and their daughter. Ferdinand I, called the Great, was the Count of Castile from his uncle’s death in 1029 and the King of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037.
Are you saying that this Kings/Queen weren’t white?
This is why people shouldn’t trust tumblr.
Thank you, but I don’t need wikipedia. I actually know about my country history.
But maybe you should read this
Uh huh…..some of these leaders are illustrated above. Not really sure what about that link proves anything about race…
I linked to more than Wikipedia (although they’re well-cited, including a bibliography).
The last three links:
Muslim Spain: 711-1492 A.D. : a Sociological Study By S. M. Imamuddin (p. 24-25):
Islamic And Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages By Thomas F. Glick(p. 192):
The Legacy of Muslim Spain edited by Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Manuela Marín (p.51, 232):
The bibliography for the page on Al-Andalus:
- Alfonso, Esperanza, 2007. Islamic culture through Jewish eyes: al-Andalus from the tenth to twelfth century. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-43732-5
- Al-Djazairi, S.E. 2005. The Hidden Debt to Islamic Civilisation. Bayt Al-Hikma Press. ISBN 0-9551156-1-2
- Bossong, Georg. 2002. Der Name Al-Andalus: Neue Überlegungen zu einem alten Problem. In David Restle and Dietmar Zaefferer, eds, Sounds and systems: studies in structure and change. A festschrift for Theo Vennemann. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 149–164. (In German) Also available online: see External Links below.
- Cohen, Mark. 1995. Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01082-X
- Collins, Roger. 1989. The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710–797, Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19405-3
- Dodds, Jerrilynn D. (1992). Al-Andalus: the art of Islamic Spain. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780870996368.
- Frank, Daniel H. and Leaman, Oliver. 2003. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65574-9
- Gerli, E. Michael, ed., 2003. Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia. New York. ISBN 0-415-93918-6
- Halm, Heinz. 1989. Al-Andalus und Gothica Sors. Der Islam 66:252–263.
- Hamilton, Michelle M., Sarah J. Portnoy, and David A. Wacks, eds. 2004. Wine, Women, and Song: Hebrew and Arabic Literature in Medieval Iberia. Newark, Del.: Juan de la Cuesta Hispanic Monographs.
- Harzig, Christiane, Hoerder, Dirk and Shubert, Adrian. 2003. The Historical Practice in Diversity. Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-377-2
- Jayyusi, Salma Khadra, ed. 1994. The legacy of Muslim Spain. 2 vol. Chief consultant to the editor, Manuela Marín. Leiden: Brill. [Originally published 1992 in German.]
- Kennedy, Hugh. 1996. Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus, Longman. ISBN 0-582-49515-6
- Kraemer, Joel. 1997. Comparing Crescent and Cross (book review). The Journal of Religion, 1997 July, 77(3):449–454.
- Kraemer, Joel. 2005. Moses Maimonides: An Intellectual Portrait. In Kenneth Seeskin, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Maimonides. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81974-1
- Kraemer, Joel. 2008. Maimonides : the life and world of one of civilization’s greatest minds. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-51199-X
- Lafuente y Alcántara, Emilio, translator. 1867. Ajbar Machmua (colección de tradiciones): crónica anónima del siglo XI / dada a luz por primera vez, traducida y anotada por Emilio Lafuente y Alcántara. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia y Geografía. In Spanish and Arabic. Also available in the public domain online, see External Links.
- Luscombe, David et al., eds. 2004. The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, c. 1024 – c. 1198, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41411-3
- Marcus, Ivan G.,1985. Beyond the Sepahrdic mystique. in Orim, vol. 1, 35-53.
- Marín, Manuela et al., eds. 1998. The Formation of Al-Andalus: History and Society. Ashgate. ISBN 0-86078-708-7
- Menocal, Maria Rosa. 2002. Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain. Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-16871-8
- Monroe, James T. 1970. Islam and the Arabs in Spanish scholarship : (Sixteenth century to the present). Leiden.
- Monroe, James T. 1974. Hispano-Arabic Poetry: A Student Anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Netanyahu, Benzion. 1995. The Origins Of The Inquisition In Fifteenth Century Spain. Random House ISBN 0-679-41065-1
- O’Callaghan, Joseph F. 1975. A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9264-5
- Omaar, Rageh. 2005. An Islamic History of Europe. video documentary, BBC 4, August 2005.
- Reilly, Bernard F. 1993. The Medieval Spains. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39741-3
- Roth, Norman. 1994. Jews, Visigoths and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-06131-2
- Sanchez-Albornoz, Claudio. 1974. El Islam de España y el Occidente. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe. Colección Austral; 1560. [Originally published in 1965 in the conference proceedings, L’occidente e l’islam nell’alto medioevo: 2-8 aprile 1964, 2 vols. Spoleto: Centro Italiano di studi sull’Alto Medioevo. Series: Settimane di studio del Centro Italiano di studi sull’Alto Medioevo; 12. Vol. 1:149–308.]
- Schorsch, Ismar, 1989. The myth of Sephardic supremacy, in The Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 34, 47-66
- Stavans, Ilan. 2003. The Scroll and the Cross: 1,000 Years of Jewish-Hispanic Literature. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92930-X
- Wasserstein, David J. 1995. Jewish élites in Al-Andalus. In Daniel Frank (Ed.). The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community, Society and Identity. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10404-6
- Paper by Georg Bossong evaluating proposals for the etymology of “al-Andalus”. In German.
- Photocopy of the Ajbar Machmu’a, translated by Lafuente 1867
- The routes of al-Andalus (from the UNESCO web site)
- The Library of Iberian Resources Online
- Al-Andalus Chronology and Photos
- Christian Martyrs in Muslim Spain by Kenneth Baxter Wolf
- The Musical Legacy of Al-Andalus – historical maps, photos, and music showing the Great Mosque of Córdoba and related movements of people and culture over time
- Patricia, Countess Jellicoe, 1992, The Art of Islamic Spain, Saudi Aramco World
- "Cities of Light: The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain" (documentary film)
- Al-Andalus: the art of Islamic Spain, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF)
Not to detract from the point or the purpose, but Alfonso VI is depicted posing amazingly with a (human???) humerus. That is awesome.
MA Comparative Art and Archaeology, Institute of Archaeology (University College London)
- by Katherine Mary Sinha
“This dissertation is written on the colonial rock art of South Africa, comparing regions of the South-western Cape and the Maloti-Drakensberg, which lie in respective provinces of the Western Cape and the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. These paintings were made by indigenous populations of colonial South Africa, during the period of colonisation by both the British and the Dutch lasting throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. The comparison between the bodies of colonial rock art of these two regions shows how artistic practice and tradition are bound up with and function according to the particularities of the regional circumstances that ensued the colonial interactions of the European colonisers with the indigenous populations of the regions in concern. By looking at colonial culture as being in itself a manifestation of contact, these colonial rock paintings tell us about the nature of the interactions and the conditions under which the artists were performing and creating these paintings” (read more/open access).
(Open access source: University College London, via Academia.edu)
Elias Geyer - Hippocampus as a drinking vessel